Journal Publications

This page contains a list of the articles that I have published in international journals.


Course Withdrawal: A Comparison of Business and Engineering Students in a Private University

Published in Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education (2019)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the course withdrawal behavior of business and engineering students in a private university. While previous research has studied such behavior, the literature remains sparse and dated. While dropping out of college has received cross-national interest, the same cannot be said of course withdrawal. Most research to date has been conducted in a community college setting or has used a subset of the courses taken by students at universities in the U.S. Thus, this is one of the first studies to investigate course withdrawal in another country. The present study uses a negative binomial model in order to model the total number of course withdrawals for 760 students. The dataset includes all courses taken by the students, with a total of 25,160 course outcomes. Among the findings are that males withdraw from courses more than females, engineering courses have the highest withdrawal rates, and male engineering students withdraw more than any other group.


Always Negotiate, Sometimes Cooperate: An Agent – Based Model

Published in International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior (2019)

The nature of the workplace has been changing at a rapid pace, with employment relations becoming more individualized. Therefore, negotiation today is more important than ever, for both managerial and non-managerial employees. This study presents an agent-based model that aims to simulate the negotiation process. The aim of the simulation is to better understand the dynamics of the negotiation process by highlighting the strategy adopted by top performing individuals. Specifically, the simulation looks at the two acts of negotiation and cooperation. The simulation results indicate that negotiation is beneficial in varying degrees, while cooperation is beneficial only under certain circumstances. The study then extends this analysis by allowing for gender differences in both negotiation and cooperation. The results provide strong support for the idea that agentic characteristics are beneficial for negotiators, and that females are disadvantaged due to the fact that they are raised to be more communal than males.


Women in Engineering: A Qualitative Investigation of the Contextual Supports and Barriers to their Career Choice

Published in Women’s Studies International Forum (2019)

This study explores both past and current experiences of female engineering students. Women continue to be underrepresented in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields in most countries. Using Social Cognitive Career Theory as a theoretical framework, 30 semi-structured interviews were conducted with female engineering students in Lebanon to better understand their decision-making processes and to shed light on their experiences. Results indicate that female engineers continue to face significant hurdles in both social and professional settings. Society, as represented by their extended family and friends, questioned their choices, and discrimination, including sexual harassment, continues to be an issue at work or internships. This study also emphasizes the power of human agency and the importance of the nuclear family, in that most participants discussed the extent of support that they received, and continue to receive, from their parents and siblings, in addition to their belief that they are responsible for their own choices.


A Study of Cheating Beliefs, Engagement, and Perception – A Comparative Analysis between Business and Engineering Students

Published in Journal of Academic Ethics (2019)

Studies have found that academic dishonesty is widespread. Of particular interest is the case of business students since many are expected to be the leaders of tomorrow. This study examines the cheating behaviors and perceptions of 819 business and engineering students at three private Lebanese universities, two of which are ranked as the top two universities in the country. Our results show that cheating is pervasive in the universities to an alarming degree. We first analyzed the data by looking at the variables gender, college (business vs. engineering), GPA, and whether the students had taken the business ethics course. We then supplemented this analysis by building an ordered logistic regression model to test whether these independent variables affect the level of engagement in cheating behavior when we control for the other variables. The results show that males engage in cheating more than females and that students with a lower GPA engage in cheating more. We initially find a difference between business and engineering students, but once we control for the other variables, this difference ceases to exist. Our most surprising result is that the business ethics course seems to have a detrimental effect on the cheating behavior of students. Finally, we find that perception plays a key role in defining the behavior of students. The more that students perceive that others are engaging in a certain behavior, the higher the probability that they will engage in the behavior, even if they believe that this behavior constitutes cheating.


Paradise of Knowledge: The Emergence of the Lebanese Newspaper Industry, 1851–1879

Published in Eurasian Studies in Business and Economics (2019)

Industry emergence is one of the central topics in organizational theory. Researchers agree that different industries emerge for different reasons. This paper will study how the Lebanese newspaper industry emerged. The paper will show that the Lebanese newspaper industry emerged as a social movement. Both macro-level structural changes and micro-level grievances will be examined. The identity of the newspapers will be inferred from the framing process and from “stories” told by the newspapers themselves. Ultimately, the paper will show that the early newspapers projected a unified identity as a social movement. The paper will also stress the importance of both macro-level structural events and micro-level grievances.


Gender Differences in Career Choices among Students in Secondary School

Published in International Journal of School & Educational Psychology (2018)

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics play an important role in shaping the economies of countries. It is now well documented that females are underrepresented in these fields. This study examines whether gender differences exist in Lebanon with regard to the career choices of boys and girls at the secondary school level. Three hundred and ninety-nine surveys were collected from three private schools. The surveys asked the students to indicate their potential interest in a set of 22 occupational roles that are categorized into the following five categories: Creative, Medical, Child Mentoring-Rehabilitative, Clerical-Sales, and Technological. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicate that gender differences exist in the model parameters in all categories. With regard to the mean of the constructs, the results show that there are highly significant differences in the mean of Technology between males and females, with an effect size of more than 0.8. Finally, structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether the age of the respondents was related to any of the occupational constructs. The results show that age was significant in all models. Specifically, older boys were significantly less interested in the Child Mentoring-Rehabilitative occupational category, while older females were significantly less interested in the Technological occupational category.


The University Is an Organization: Teaching Organizational Behavior by Relying on Students’ University Experience

Published in Management Teaching Review (2018)

One of the primary challenges in teaching Organizational Behavior concepts is that undergraduate business students often have little or no work experience. We propose a method that utilizes students’ experience in the university as the basis for understanding these concepts. This understanding is achieved by highlighting the fact that the university is an organization and that students are members of this organization. Students are encouraged to think about how the material applies to them in the university. This approach, we believe, has increased students’ interest in the material and helped them reflect on the concepts, thus providing opportunities to grow and develop both as students and as individuals. We used surveys that were distributed in the university and answered by the students. Students participated in experiments, and in many instance, they were surprised by the results.


Category Dynamics and Cluster Spanning During the Emergence of the Lebanese Newspaper Industry (1851- 1879)

Published in Heliyon (2018)

Recently, researchers have started to pay more attention to a usually ignored topic: audience perceptions. Legitimacy, for example, is no longer modeled as the number of organizations in a population. It is now thought to be dependent on how audience members perceive these organizations. This paper will study how the newspaper industry in Lebanon emerged. The paper studies the period 1851–1879, building on the theoretic formulation of Hannan et al. (2007). The concept of cluster formation will also be introduced in order to help answer the question of whether unified identity projection is a necessary condition for successful legitimation and emergence. So far, research has produced diverging results as to the necessary conditions for successful legitimation. Cluster Analysis is used to show that in the case of the Lebanese newspaper industry, successful emergence was attained without the need to project a unified identity. In fact, the analysis clearly shows that there were two separate groups of clusters that had emerged by the end of the period. The nature of these two clusters will be investigated by looking at the category spanning activities of the newspapers that were members of the clusters.


Cluster Formation as a Representation of the Category Space: A Two-Level Theoretical Model Tested Within the Context of the Lebanese Newspaper Industry (1851-1974)

Published in SAGE Open (2017)

Researchers in organizational ecology have started to pay more attention to audience perceptions. Legitimacy, for example, is no longer modeled as the number of organizations in a population. It is now thought to be dependent on how audience members perceive these organizations. It is believed that audiences penalize organizations that span categories because they cannot make much sense of them. This article will argue that category spanning dynamics follow the pattern proposed by the resource partitioning theory, thereby questioning the legitimacy of the claim that category spanning is detrimental to organization survival. Instead, the article develops a two-level model which distinguishes between category spanning and cluster spanning. The article will argue that cluster spanning, and not category spanning, increases the mortality hazard of organizations during all time periods. The theory is then tested within the context of the Lebanese newspaper industry (1851-1974). The result of both cluster analysis and survival analysis supports the two-level model.